Some scholars, such as Rodney Stark play down the Renaissance in favor of the earlier innovations of the Italian city-states in the High Middle Ageswhich married responsive government, Christianity and the birth of capitalism.
Finally, the older view of the Renaissance centred too exclusively on Italy, and within Italy on a few cities—Florence, Venice, and Rome.
Please improve the article or discuss the issue. In this period some important innovations of the Middle Ages came into their own, including the revival of urban life, commercial enterprise based on private capital, banking, the formation of states, systematic investigation of the physical world, Classical scholarship, and vernacular literatures.
In government, city-states and regional and national principalities supplanted the fading hegemony of the empire and the Papacy and obliterated many of the local feudal jurisdictions that had covered Europe, although within states power continued to be monopolized by elites drawing their strength from both landed and mercantile wealth.
During the Renaissance, money and art went hand in hand. From one point of view, this sudden renaissance looks radiant, confident, heroic—and belated, but all the more dazzling for its belatedness.
However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion that was reflected in many other areas of cultural life. Today, every particular of this formula is under suspicion if not altogether repudiated.
However, a number of humanists joined the Reformation movement and took over leadership functions, for example, Philipp MelanchthonUlrich ZwingliJohn Calvinand William Tyndale.
The period from the fourteenth century to the seventeenth worked in favor of the general emancipation of the individual. While modern mechanical technologies were pressed into service by the Stuarts to create the scenic wonders of the court masquethe discoveries of astronomers and explorers were redrawing the cosmos in a way that was profoundly disturbing: Please format the article according to the guidelines laid out in the Manual of Style.
This work of translation from Islamic culture, though largely unplanned and disorganized, constituted one of the greatest transmissions of ideas in history.
Luxuries from the Eastern world, brought home during the Crusadesincreased the prosperity of Genoa and Venice.
Italian humanism spread northward to FranceGermanythe Low Countriesand England with the adoption of large-scale printing after the end of the era of incunabula or books printed prior toand it became associated with the Protestant Reformation.
Of these two, Hermeticism has had great continuing influence in Western thought, while the former mostly dissipated as an intellectual trend, leading to movements in Western esotericism such as Theosophy and New Age thinking.
Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, music, politics, science, religion, and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. The philosophers speaking for the new century would be Francis Bacon, who argued for the gradual advancement of science through patient accumulation of experiments, and the skeptic Michel de Montaigne his Essays translated from the French by John Florio who denied that it was possible to formulate any general principles of knowledge.
Many worked for the Catholic Church and were in holy orderslike Petrarch, while others were lawyers and chancellors of Italian cities, and thus had access to book copying workshops, such as Petrarch's disciple Salutatithe Chancellor of Florence. By discarding false dichotomies—Renaissance versus Middle Ages, Classical versus Gothic, modern versus feudal—one is able to grasp more fully the interrelatedness of Italy with the rest of Europe and to investigate the extent to which the great centres of Renaissance learning and art were nourished and influenced by less exalted towns and by changes in the pattern of rural life.
Plagues were easily spread by lice, unsanitary drinking water, armies, or by poor sanitation.English literature - The Renaissance period: – In a tradition of literature remarkable for its exacting and brilliant achievements, the Elizabethan and early Stuart periods have been said to represent the most brilliant century of all.
The American Renaissance period, circaheralded a new sense of nationalism with a pride linking to a spirit akin to Greek democracy, the rule of Roman law, and a cultural and educational reform movement often referred to as Renaissance humanism.
A sharp break with medieval values and institutions, a new awareness of the individual, an awakened interest in the material world and nature, and a recovery of the cultural heritage of ancient Greece and Rome—these were once understood to be the major achievements of the Renaissance.
David C Literature 12 November 4th, Renaissance Humanism Humanism of the renaissance period was the predominant movement that revolutionized philosophical, intellectual, and literary customs.
It first originated in Italy during the fourteenth century and eventually spread to other major areas in. Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. The term Renaissance humanism is.
2. Claimed that the Middle Ages (the period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the emergence of the Renaissance) were the “Dark Ages” 3.
He was perhaps the first to use critical textual analysis to ancient texts. Especially influenced by Cicero 4.
Wrote his famous poetry in the Italian vernacular (as.Download